Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in Rhode Island Apartments

It is illegal in Rhode Island (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults. In addition, tenants are protected from discrimination based on their marital status.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate Rhode Island and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4 , R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-4 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4 , R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-4 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4 , R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-4 .

Marital Status

Rhode Island additionally prohibits discrimination based on one’s marital status. Landlords cannot offer lowered rent to married tenants, only accept married couples, or only accept single tenants. R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4 , R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-4 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

Rhode Island has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-3 , R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4 , R.I. Gen. Laws 34-37-4.1 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in Rhode Island to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (70.0% from Rhode Island) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 7 out of the 70 discrimination complaints from Rhode Island were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of Rhode Island or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-5 . R.I. Gen. Laws Sec. 34-37-5 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in Rhode Island” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 16 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in South Carolina Apartments

It is illegal in South Carolina (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate South Carolina and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. S.C. Code 31-21-70 , S.C. Code Sec. 31-21-40 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. S.C. Code 31-21-70 , S.C. Code Sec. 31-21-40 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. S.C. Code 31-21-70 , S.C. Code Sec. 31-21-40 .

Exemptions for Second Homes

South Carolina includes an exception intended for landlords who are renting out their second homes. The law is intended to reduce the compliance burden for such non-professional landlords. Specifically, landlords who rent fewer than 4 single-family houses do not have to abide by most of the discrimination laws.

Such exemptions do not typically apply to discriminatory advertising (e.g., “Only accepting tenants over 40”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager.

S.C. Code 31-21-70 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

South Carolina has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

S.C. Code 31-21-70 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in South Carolina to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (78.1% from South Carolina) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 4 out of the 96 discrimination complaints from South Carolina were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of South Carolina or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. South Carolina law does not describe the penalties for violations of the fair housing rules. This means a judge decides consequences on a case-by-case basis. .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in South Carolina” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 18 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in Oregon Apartments

It is illegal in Oregon (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults. In addition, tenants are protected from discrimination based on their marital status.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate Oregon and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. Or. Rev. Stat. 659 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. Or. Rev. Stat. 659 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. Or. Rev. Stat. 659 .

Marital Status

Oregon additionally prohibits discrimination based on one’s marital status. Landlords cannot offer lowered rent to married tenants, only accept married couples, or only accept single tenants. Or. Rev. Stat. 659 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

Oregon has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

Or. Rev. Stat. 659 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in Oregon to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (65.3% from Oregon) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 5 out of the 49 discrimination complaints from Oregon were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of Oregon or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. Or. Rev. Stat. Sec. 659 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in Oregon” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 10 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in Pennsylvania Apartments

It is illegal in Pennsylvania (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate Pennsylvania and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. , 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. Sec. 955.3 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. , 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. Sec. 955.3 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. , 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. Sec. 955.3 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

Pennsylvania has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

43 Pa. Cons. Stat. .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in Pennsylvania to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (53.1% from Pennsylvania) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 12 out of the 179 discrimination complaints from Pennsylvania were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of Pennsylvania or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. In addition, landlords may serve prison time for severe cases, as Pennsylvania considers discriminatory practices a criminal act in some cases. It can be a misdemeanor or a felony. 43 Pa. Cons. Stat. Sec. 959.3 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in Pennsylvania” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 35 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in Oklahoma Apartments

It is illegal in Oklahoma (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate Oklahoma and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1452 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1452 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1452 .

Exemptions for Second Homes

Oklahoma includes an exception intended for landlords who are renting out their second homes. The law is intended to reduce the compliance burden for such non-professional landlords. Specifically, landlords who rent fewer than 4 single-family houses do not have to abide by most of the discrimination laws.

Such exemptions do not typically apply to discriminatory advertising (e.g., “Only accepting tenants over 40”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager.

Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1452 , Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1453 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

Oklahoma has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1452 , Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1453 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in Oklahoma to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (60.6% from Oklahoma) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 2 out of the 99 discrimination complaints from Oklahoma were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of Oklahoma or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. Okla. Stat. tit. 25, Sec. 1506.6 . In addition, landlords may receive a misdemeanor criminal charge in certain cases, especially for severe cases or repeat offenders. This may result in some jail time. Okla. Stat. tit. 25, 1506.9 , Okla. Stat. tit. 25, Sec. 1506.6 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in Oklahoma” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in North Dakota Apartments

It is illegal in North Dakota (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults. In addition, tenants are protected from discrimination based on their marital status.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate North Dakota and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-45 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-02 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-45 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-02 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-45 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-02 .

Marital Status

North Dakota additionally prohibits discrimination based on one’s marital status. Landlords cannot offer lowered rent to married tenants, only accept married couples, or only accept single tenants. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-45 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-02 .

Exemptions for Second Homes

North Dakota includes an exception intended for landlords who are renting out their second homes. The law is intended to reduce the compliance burden for such non-professional landlords. Specifically, landlords who rent fewer than 4 single-family houses do not have to abide by most of the discrimination laws.

Such exemptions do not typically apply to discriminatory advertising (e.g., “Only accepting tenants over 40”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager.

N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-02 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-09 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

North Dakota has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-02 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-06 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-09 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in North Dakota to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (97.0% from North Dakota) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 3 out of the 33 discrimination complaints from North Dakota were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of North Dakota or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-37 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-32 . In addition, landlords may receive a misdemeanor criminal charge in certain cases, especially for severe cases or repeat offenders. This may result in some jail time. N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-37 , N.D. Cent. Code 14-02.5-45 , N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 14-02.5-32 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in North Dakota” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 7 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in Ohio Apartments

It is illegal in Ohio (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate Ohio and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. Ohio Rev. Code 4112.02 , Ohio Rev. Code Sec. 4112.02 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. Ohio Rev. Code 4112.02 , Ohio Rev. Code Sec. 4112.02 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. Ohio Rev. Code 4112.02 , Ohio Rev. Code Sec. 4112.02 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in Ohio to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (42.7% from Ohio) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 54 out of the 370 discrimination complaints from Ohio were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of Ohio or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. Ohio Rev. Code Sec. 4112.05 . Ohio Rev. Code Sec. 4112.05 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in Ohio” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 32 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in New Mexico Apartments

It is illegal in for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults. In addition, tenants are protected from discrimination based on their marital status.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate New Mexico and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. N.M. Stat. 28-1-7 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-7 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. N.M. Stat. 28-1-7 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-7 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. N.M. Stat. 28-1-7 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-7 .

Marital Status

New Mexico additionally prohibits discrimination based on one’s marital status. Landlords cannot offer lowered rent to married tenants, only accept married couples, or only accept single tenants. N.M. Stat. 28-1-7 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-7 .

Exemptions for Second Homes

New Mexico includes an exception intended for landlords who are renting out their second homes. The law is intended to reduce the compliance burden for such non-professional landlords. Specifically, landlords who rent fewer than 4 single-family houses do not have to abide by most of the discrimination laws.

Such exemptions do not typically apply to discriminatory advertising (e.g., “Only accepting tenants over 40”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager.

N.M. Stat. 28-1-9 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-9 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

New Mexico has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

N.M. Stat. 28-1-9 , N.M. Stat. Sec. 28-1-9 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in New Mexico to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (80.6% from New Mexico) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 2 out of the 36 discrimination complaints from New Mexico were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of New Mexico or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. New Mexico law does not describe the penalties for violations of the fair housing rules. This means a judge decides consequences on a case-by-case basis. .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in New Mexico” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in New York Apartments

It is illegal in New York (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults. In addition, tenants are protected from discrimination based on their marital status.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate New York and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. N.Y. Exec. Law 296-a , N.Y. Exec. Law 296 , N.Y. Exec. Law Sec. 296 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. N.Y. Exec. Law 296-a , N.Y. Exec. Law 296 , N.Y. Exec. Law Sec. 296 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. N.Y. Exec. Law 296-a , N.Y. Exec. Law 296 , N.Y. Exec. Law Sec. 296 .

Marital Status

New York additionally prohibits discrimination based on one’s marital status. Landlords cannot offer lowered rent to married tenants, only accept married couples, or only accept single tenants. N.Y. Exec. Law 296-a , N.Y. Exec. Law 296 , N.Y. Exec. Law Sec. 296 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

New York has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

N.Y. Exec. Law 296 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in New York to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (60.4% from New York) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 79 out of the 579 discrimination complaints from New York were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of New York or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. In addition, landlords may serve prison time for severe cases, as New York considers discriminatory practices a criminal act in some cases. It can be a misdemeanor or a felony. N.Y. Exec. Law 296-a , N.Y. Exec. Law Sec. 299 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in New York” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 71 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.

Discrimination of Families, Pregnant Women, and Children in North Carolina Apartments

It is illegal in North Carolina (and federally) for landlords to discriminate against tenants based on their having children, being pregnant, or otherwise their familial status. Children must be provided equal access to all facilities and services offered to adults.

Family Restrictions

Most types of restrictions on families with children violate North Carolina and federal law. For example, charging tenants with children higher rent or a higher deposit, advertising an apartment as being only for families (or not for families), putting an age limit for children, and placing all families in one part of the building are all illegal. N.C. Gen. Stat. 41 , N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 .

Rights of Children

Landlords that treat children and adults differently are violating the law that prohibits landlords from discriminating against a tenant’s familial status. Thus, prohibiting children from playing in the laundry room, using the pool, or putting up signs that children can’t skateboard violates the law. Apartment policies must apply equally to adults and children. N.C. Gen. Stat. 41 , N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 .

Pregnancy

Discriminating against pregnant tenants is illegal. For example, it’s illegal to denying an apartment application because someone is pregnant, charging higher rent or deposits to a pregnant tenant, or deliberately placing a pregnant tenant in a certain part of a building so other tenants aren’t disturbed by the noise of babies. N.C. Gen. Stat. 41 , N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 .

Exception for Landlord-Occupied Homes

North Carolina has an exception called the “Murphy Rule”, which is intended to allow landlords to rent out extra rooms in their home without a large compliance burden. If the apartment is in the landlord’s own residence, then the landlord is free to discriminate regarding whom they rent to. This exception only applies to smaller homes, specifically where the house or building has four or fewer apartment units.

This exemption does not typically apply to advertising (e.g., “Only accepting white tenants”) or where the landlord uses a professional property manager or other real estate professional. Some states may have additional see restrictions. See state law for more details.

N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 .

Enforcement

Tenants may report discrimination regarding familial status, children, or pregnancy to the federal government directly. They also have the option in North Carolina to report it to state authorities. Tenants may choose to report the problem to both.

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the federal government? The most recent year we have data is from 2016. In 2016, 63.4% (56.6% from North Carolina) of discrimination cases were resolved in the year they were filed. 20 out of the 166 discrimination complaints from North Carolina were about discrimination against children, familial status, or pregnancy. Landlords that violate the federal Fair Housing Act can face civil penalties up to $16,000 for a first violation and $65,000 for future violations (each act of discrimination is a separate violation). In cases where the Justice Department is involved, civil penalties may rise to $100,000 per violation and federal courts can add additional damages. Landlords should also keep in mind the time and costs involved in defending against an action by the federal government. About 36% of complaints end up with a charge or settlement, based on 2016 data. Data.gov

What happens when a tenant reports a problem to the authorities of North Carolina or a local government? They may ask the tenant for information to help bring the case, including any evidence (e.g., emails and pictures). If the government finds there’s sufficient information between the tenant’s complaint (as well as complaints from other tenants), the landlord may be charged and taken to court to defend themselves. Landlords will likely receive fines if they lose. The amount of the fines will be determined in part by the severity of the issue. Fines increase significantly for repeat offenders. N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 . N.C. Gen. Stat. Sec. 41 .

Reporting a Violation

Tenants may report violations of federal laws (i.e., discrimination against children and families) through the HUD website – it can be done online or via phone. Tenants can report issues to their state government by looking at the state website. A google search for “report fair housing violation in North Carolina” will likely provide applicable information. In either case, tenants may be able to call the number on the page to ask whether their situation legally qualifies as rental discrimination.

Retaliation by the Landlord

Federal law (the https://www.hud.gov/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/online-complaintFair Housing Act ) makes it illegal for landlords to harass a tenant in retaliation for reporting a problem. Examples of such harassment may include raising the rent or threatening to evict the tenant. Each such attempt is an additional violation. These protections do not apply if the tenant complained about something that they don’t have right to, so tenants should know whether it’s a violation. 7 such cases were filed with the federal government from in last year we have data (2016). Data.gov. Dept of Housing and Urban Development.